LM80 Lumen Maintenance

LED luminaires and lamps do not “fail” like conventional sources

· This is known as L70

· Total life is known as L70B50

LED luminaires and lamps gradually decrease in output over time

IES has determined end of life of LED products to be when the lumen output is 70% of its initial (30% depreciation)

· This is known as L70

· Total life is known as L70B50

L70B50 is the amount of time for the light output of 50% of a set of LEDs to fall to 70% of their original light output under a given set of operating conditions.

The DOE has suggested that useful life of LEDs to be 35,000 to 50,000 hours.

Claims beyond these values cannot currently be substantiated using available approved methods, or historical data to support claims beyond these levels.

LM-80 however does not provide testing procedures for a complete luminaire only to measure the lumen maintenance of a LED package, array or module at 6,000 hours.

Author: pplus at 10:30 am | Comments Off
Category : Guide, lamp, Led, LED education, Lumen, Maintenance, Tips
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Energy-saving LEDs get the green light

By March, Falls could be lighting its way to green savings.

The board recently awarded a $25,318 contract to Armour and Sons Electric for the purchase and installation of 22 LED streetlights for five township roadways.

If the potentially energy-saving pilot project proves successful, the township plans to gradually switch its 2,600 streetlights to LEDs.

LEDs, or light-emitting diodes, are solid-state lighting components. The alternative lighting source is said to last decades, far exceeding the one- to two-year life of traditional light bulbs, officials said.

LED City — a community of government and industry parties promoting LED technology — contends that 98 percent of the power used for a light bulb produces heat rather than light.

Supervisor James Prokopiak, who has researched the technology, said LEDs could help the township save 40 percent of the $250,000 to $300,000 annual streetlight expense.

“It’s something we need to start doing now,” Prokopiak said, noting that most energy comes from foreign countries. “We’re making our enemies rich. That’s not a good thing.”

A few years ago, Falls began a phased replacement of township-owned traffic lights with LEDs.

Other towns, including Bristol Township, Yardley, Langhorne and Doylestown have either followed suit or are considering installing LED lights.

Author: nn at 5:27 pm | Comments Off
Category : General

LEDinside: Are LEDs Really a Suitable Replacement for 40W Incandescent Bulbs? A Look at Cost-Performance Ratio

LEDinside: Are LEDs Really a Suitable Replacement for 40W Incandescent Bulbs? A Look at Cost-Performance Ratio

In consideration of whether or not LED light bulbs are truly a proper replacement for 40W incandescent bulbs, as major manufacturers claim, brightness is an important factor, as LEDinside has previously mentioned. What other standards must be met in order to make the transition to LED bulbs? 

According to a previous survey on brightness of LED light bulbs by LEDinside, a research division of TrendForce, major brands that lived up to replacement specifications include European company Philips, U.S. lighting giant GE, Japanese manufacturers Sharp and Toshiba, and Korean electronics maker LG. While these companies’ products meet brightness standards, do they also adhere to other standards necessary for incandescent light bulb replacement?

LEDinside further analyzes light bulbs from major international LED makers that met brightness standards to replace 40W incandescent lamp.

Color Rendering Index

First, in terms of color rendering, the CRI of LED lighting is not as high as that of incandescent bulbs (CRI = 100). Both the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Korea’s Korean Industrial Standards (KS) have CRI standards for the replacement of incandescent bulbs with LEDs. The DOE requires a CRI of 80 or above, while the KS standard is 70 CRI or higher. While LED products from the major brands do not match incandescent bulbs in terms of CRI, they still meet various national standards. Uniquely, Sharp does not list CRI values for their products. While LEDinside believes Sharp’s products have ratings of 70 CRI or above, it is somewhat disappointing that they do not explicitly label their products as such.

Beam Angle

Beam angle, or light distribution, is another important standard in LED lighting. Unlike CRI, product specifications vary quite a bit by manufacturers: beam angles begin at 120 degrees and range to more than double that, at 260 degrees. Looking at things from an incandescent lamp standpoint, most LED products are not up to par as the light distribution of incandescent bulbs is general and non-directional, with a beam angle of over 300 degrees. As LED light bulbs are inherently directional, a different standard is required for measuring LED beam angle.

At present the U.S. DOE and JELMA (Japan Electric Lamp Manufacturers Association) are both working on new standards for LED light bulbs replacing incandescent bulbs. Bulbs that meet current national standards include: GE’s 62180, Philips’ 90048400 PHI (250 degrees), and Toshiba’s LDA8L-G (260 degrees). These products are a cut above the rest due to their adherence to beam angle standards.

Cost-Performance Ratio

After sifting through various LED products, a few winners have emerged. However, the products that met required specifications for replacement of 40W incandescent bulbs also have accordingly high prices.

Taking a step back to look at the total economic benefit analysis, the lifespan of a single incandescent bulb is 1,000 hours. At 3 hours of use per day, one bulb will last one year (3 hours x 365 days ? 1,000 hours), with total expense at approximately US$5.50 (initial purchase price plus cost of electricity). All of the previously mentioned LED bulbs, while boasting low power consumption, have a higher initial purchase price than their incandescent lamp counterparts. 

However, such an analysis is unfair to LED bulbs that each has a lifespan of 25,000 hours. Looking at it from a different angle, the lifespan of a single LED bulb is equal to that of twenty-five 40W incandescent bulbs. Thus, it is clear that whether we are looking at GE’s 9W 62180, Philips’ 8W 90048400 PHI, or Toshiba’s 7.7W LDA8L-G. Besides, the total expense (initial purchase price plus cost of electricity) for one LED bulb is approximately 40% ~50% lower than that of 25 40W incandescent bulbs (based on U.S. electricity rates).

Since electricity rates vary by country, total accumulated expense will vary as well. In countries with higher electric prices such as Japan, total expense for one LED bulb is only 30% or so less than that of 25 incandescent bulbs. In other words, once a consumer has bought four incandescent bulbs, their total cost has exceeded that the LED equivalent. 

LEDinside Summary

While many manufacturers claim that their LED light bulbs are suitable substitutes for 40W incandescent bulbs, in actuality there are few products that meet replacement standards. As for those that pass the test, although initial cost is much higher than incandescent lamp purchases, factoring in longer lifespan and higher efficiency, LED bulbs still come out on top in regards to cost-performance ratio.

Still, as LED light bulb inspection standards are not fully developed, LED product specifications are not yet uniform. Different LED manufacturers place emphasis on different product features, causing consumers much confusion in the purchase of LED lighting. The fog will only clear when governments set clear standards and LED makers automatically disclose full product information. Until then, LEDinside will strive to objectively survey and present findings on LED products and their main specifications, in order to provide consumers with a comprehensive resource to refer to when making the decision to purchase LED light bulbs.

Author: nn at 5:03 pm | Comments Off
Category : General

Dealership Creatively Cuts Lighting Use/Costs

Auto dealerships, like most high profile retail businesses today, are fighting an uncertain economy and pulling out all the stops to service existing customers and attract potential buyers.  In many cases an extreme makeover is the only viable solution to create a truly attractive and efficient selling environment.
Camelback Toyota (Phoenix, AZ) is one such dealership.  The company recently built a new facility and leaned heavily on technology to help it achieve a competitive advantage. The result – from the indoor showroom to the outdoor lot – is a modern facility that is contemporary, attractive and efficient.

New and exciting features range from a high-end solar roof and iPads to Starbucks coffee and massage chairs.  But the most visible and measurable change at Camelback is the network of more than 100 metal halide lighting fixtures featuring a state-of-the-art control solution that not only shines a spotlight on the 9.6-acre facility, but gives the ownership unprecedented control over its lighting.

Brent Tally, Director of Construction for the Van Tuyl Group – the largest privately held automotive group in the U.S. – was given the challenge to effectively manage the lighting fixtures that showcase the dealership.
“Outdoor lighting is a critical design and cost element for the dealership,” Tally explained, “so we consulted with our local Acuity Brands representative, R.C. Lurie Co., to address our need for a lighting system that delivers both quality light and efficient performance.”
R.C. Lurie recommended the Remote Operations Asset Management (ROAM) system by Acuity Brands Controls to achieve enhanced efficiency, dramatic energy savings and enhanced lot security.
Smart, Simple and Powerful
ROAM provides Camelback Toyota outdoor luminaire monitoring and control through smart photocontrols (nodes) that diagnose fixture malfunctions and wirelessly communicate information to a central collection point or gateway. Data is transmitted to a Network Operations Center (NOC) via cellular uplink or Ethernet, with system owners/operators able to access luminaire information through a secure web portal from the Internet.
Michael Spector, Facilities/Inventory Director for Camelback Toyota, says there is no need to continuously check on the lighting fixtures or pay an auditing service person to confirm they are operational or require maintenance. “The ROAM system allows us to control lighting fixtures through a secure web portal rather than relying on inflexible control panels located in boxes installed throughout the parking lot,” explained Spector.
Customer Friendly
From the web-based portal, Spector and his team have complete flexibility for scheduling, controlling and reporting. Andy Dickert, Deployment Manager for Acuity Brands Controls explains, “By design, the Camelback Toyota system is divided into two simple lighting groups, one that consists of twenty four, 400-watt lights in the front of the property and a second that comprises seventy-seven, 750-watt fixtures throughout the rest of the lot.  This scheme gives Camelback the ability to manage lighting in relationship to its needs and desires.”
Tally explains, “Many Arizona residents, especially during the summer, wait until sunset for outdoor activities to take advantage of the cooler temperatures. The ROAM system enables Camelback Toyota to schedule the appropriate lighting when and where it is needed in order to showcase its inventory and to ensure safety.”
ROAM enables Camelback Toyota to attract customer attention while reducing its carbon emissions in a secure, well-lit environment,” Spector said. “The system is efficient and easy to use.   We wanted a secure, Internet-based system that we could easily access for control or information from any of our U.S. locations.  ROAM gives us the flexibility to set routine schedules, but also to remotely override the system when necessary.  If a storm rolls in, for example, we can turn the fixtures on early from a computer.”
Reduced Energy Use, Carbon Emissions & Maintenance Costs
Camelback Toyota relies on ROAM to reduce energy consumption; 25-50 percent of its outdoor lighting fixtures, for example, are turned off after midnight.  “We estimate Camelback Toyota is saving approximately $350 per month on electricity, based on a $0.15 KWH energy use and an estimated six hours when the lights are turned off from midnight to 6 a.m.,” said Dickert.
The dealership also uses ROAM to alternate the lamps that burn, which boosts lamp and ballast life at least 25 percent.  “And with the ROAM system, there is no need to continuously check on lighting fixtures or pay an auditing service person to confirm they are operational or require maintenance,” said Spector.  “In fact, since we moved to the new location, we reduced the need to replace burnt out bulbs by 90 percent. This lowers our overall carbon emissions because we don’t have to use trucks to replace the bulbs as frequently as we did prior to installing the ROAM system.”
ROAM not only meets all of the dealership’s needs with a sustainable, state-of-the-art solution, it also delivers a genuine payback to the customers, the community and to the bottom-line. In its current configuration, the system will pay for itself in just three years.
And while Spector recommends the ROAM system to others because of its efficiency and ease of use, Tally is going a step further. “We have decided this is the system we want to build our future with,” said Tally. “We are doing our next ROAM system installs in Scottsdale, Arizona at Pinnacle Nissan, Gwinnett Place Ford in Atlanta and David Maus near Orlando, Florida.  We made the right decision with ROAM and will use the system in all our facilities moving forward.”

Author: nn at 4:36 pm | Comments Off
Category : General

The Radiation Heat-sink of LED Lamp

There are three kind methods of LED lamp heat-sink, incl. conduction, convection and radiation. The existed heat-sink design is focus on the conduction and convection for LED lamp.  In the radiation aspect, many companies did not pay attention on it.  But the radiation is a very important factor for LED lamp.
The existed conduction heat-sink of LED lamp is just in view of the internal conduction only.  That is conducting the heat of LED lamp to the radiator fin and to apply the radiator fin to bring the convection heat-sink.
Above mentioned methods are not the better ways for LED lamp heat-sink. In fact, LED lights inside the bulb, as a result the heat is difficult to go out.  This is because of the temperature inside the bulb reached a balance after lighted a period a time, and the lamp covered the LED to make a bad air flow inside the bulb.  So that, the high temperature of LED make a bad influence to the LED lamp and cause a short-life to the related electrical parts.
The existed heat-sink of LED lamp design is just limited to the internal conduction heat-sink.  It is seldom to design to conduct the heat to the lamp base to help LED lamp heat-sink.  So that, it makes a bad conduction heat-sink.
Because the luminaries will make a bad convection heat-sink, there are many LED lamp makers to build holes on the luminaries to obtain a better heat-sink.  But this design also brings another problem!!  That is the dirt will cover on the luminaries.  The dirt will also cause the bad convection heat-sink. The main factor of convection heat –sink is AIR-FLOW.
The air is not flowing inside luminaries, it will cause the convection heat-sink worse even to build lots holes on the luminaries.  For solving this problem, it needs to assembly a mini cooling fan inside the luminaries to heat-sink, but it will increase the cost!! Owing to above point out problems, Chi Long presented a new design to overcome these weak points.  The new design is focusing on the conduction and radiation heat-sink.
On the conduction heat-sink side, our design is to transmit the heat which occurred from the LED lamp to the lamp base (E27) and lamp shell.  The lamp base is connected with the luminaries, so that the heat of LED can transmit quickly to the luminaries.  The LED lamp to use the luminaries to increase the heat-sink effects to reach a excellent conduction heat-sink.
On the radiation heat-sink side, our design is to apply to the glass material on the lamp shell.  The LED lamp is to coat a layer of radiation coating in the glass-shell with big area.  The consist of the radiation coating is high radiation and conduction material.  Because of the temperature difference, the material will occur HEAT radiation heat-sink and the heat will be transmitted by the glass material through the radiation heat-sink.  This heat-sink type, the radiation heat-sink for internal and external of luminaries is exactly the same. As the radiation heat-sink can be transmitted out without any medium.
Because the lamp shell was made by glass, it is not easy to cover the dust. After long application, it is easy to maintain and clean. The user can use any cleaning liquid to clean the LED lamp and without any deterioration to reduce the brightness.
The light source angle of LED lamp is 120°. However, the light source angle what we designed is more than 120°. As we use the glass shell, it will occur refraction and reflection when the light beams through the glass shell.
On the past, some the LED lamp assembly was by handiwork, the production capacity could not reach a level.  The factor made the assembly cost too high for replacing the existed light sources. Owing that, it is a certainly difficult to possess a market share ratios.
The AC LED LAMP what we designed, the appearance is totally as same as the existed traditional light source and have a big illumination angle.  There are various lamp types, such as PS60, PAR, and T10(applying the patent now ).
The appearance of above mentioned lamp is identical to the existed traditional light sources and all made by glass. Regarding to the automation, some production equipment can utilize the existed traditional lamp making equipment.
The others, it must depend on the LED lamp specific to design the automatic equipment to make fully automation. So that, the LED lamp makers can reduce the manpower cost of assembly.
There are two kinds of AC LED LAMP what we designed now, one is bulb type, the other one is fluorescent type.  Now, we are focus on the AC LED LAMP.
Conclusion :
To compare with the existed LED in the market, there is no problems on the cooling speed to the heat-sink, but only in the heat-sink method.
The LED lamp what Chi Long designed, the radiation heat-sink won’t be influence even internal or external luminaries.  However, it will get better heat-sink internal luminaries. It is because of the heat can be transmitted to the luminaries by the lamp base to enlarge a big area to do the heat-sink.
The lamp shell is made by glass, it will not face a problems of plastic deterioration to reduce the brightness. Owing to the smooth appearance, the dust is hart to cover and easy to clean.
At the existed lighting market, the radiator fin of many LED lamp, it is very easy to cover the dust and hart to clean. It will reduce the effect of heat-sink.
The AC LED LAMP we designed, the production process is as same as traditional lamp making equipment.
Whatever is for bulb or fluorescent lamp, in the automation , it is easy and fast to do a mass production to reduce the cost. So that, our design can replace the existed traditional light sources quickly.Owing to our shell is glass material, there is no electrical leakage problems.
In the existed market, LED lamp made by aluminium, it happened electrical leakage owing the wet-environment.  From our opinion, it is possible to do a fully automation for LED LAMP. But it has to do a professional and specific design for LED. Also combination with the raw material modification, the automation can be carry out!!!.
Chi Long Machinery Co., Ltd is a professional lamp making equipment company in Taiwan.  We have a deep experience and technique to offer design and manufacture in lamp making machines.
NEW THINKING  Higher-efficiency
NEW HEAT-SINK TYPE.   To modify the traditional bulb lamp became LED bulb lamp. To keep the same external shape with glass lamp shell.The production line can be designed in automation and a mass production.                          
The pictures are as below :

We also offer the ” CUSTOMER-MADE” service to lighting makers. We can change the assembly of LED lamp into a automation.
The production process is in brief as below :
To coat a layer of radiation coating material in the glass bulb shell.To be sure that the light beams through the glass shell and it can make the glass shell is clear and has a radiation heat-sink effect.The heat of LED can transmit quickly to the lamp shell and base To transmit the heat from lamp base(E27) to the luminaries to help LED for heat-sink.And also, the glass lamp shell can enlarge the LED light from spot- light to surface- light.

NEW THINKING   higher-efficiency
NEW HEAT-SINK TYPE.   To modify the traditional fluorescent lamp became LED fluorescent lamp. To keep the same external shape with lamp  glass shell.  The production line can be designed in automation and a mass production.
The pictures are as below :

We also offer the ” CUSTOMER-MADE” service to lighting makers. We can change the assembly of LED lamp into a automation.
The production process is in brief as below :
To coat a layer of radiation coating material in the glass shell of AC LED fluorescent lamp.
The heat inside the AC LED fluorescent lamp can transmit quickly to radiation  coating material to occur the radiation heat-sink.
There are a clear and heat-sink effects for the radiation coating material. Also, the radiation coating material can enlarge the LED light from spot-light to surface-light.

Author: nn at 4:32 pm | Comments Off
Category : General

OSRAM presents new lighting perspectives at Light+Building

At this year’s Light+Building Preview, OSRAM introduced a selected range of new products which will be shown at the largest and most important trade fair of the lighting industry: the first LED-substitute for the 75W-light bulb in Europe; its first LED-module in accordance with Zhaga standards; the sure course to the world of LED-street lighting as well as the latest generation of lighting management systems. “In the course of the past year, OSRAM has succeeded in establishing itself as a full-range supplier and is now in a position to offer products and solutions for the entire scale of customer needs,” said Klaus-Günter Vennemann, CEO of the OSRAM Business Unit General Lighting.

A major technological change is presently occurring in the lighting market. Semiconductor-based technologies like LED and OLED are opening up a world of new opportunities in fields such as efficiency and light quality. Since the last Light+Building, OSRAM has directly approached and communicated with customers and to date has already spent more than 50,000 days of consulting in retail, in addition to launching a roadshow that reached approximately 7,000 lighting designers, architects and electricians. The appearance at Light+Building 2012 will present the answers found by the company in reply to the insights gained during this time.
The economic answer:
Parathom Classic A75

The Parathom Classic A75 LED lamp offers customers energy savings of approximately 400 euros per lamp, when considering the entire service life. This lamp is the first LED-substitute for the 75W-light bulb available on the European market and can be used in standard E27-sockets. LED-retrofits – the name of which refers to the new source of light for the old socket – such as the Parathom Classic A75, offer simple access to LED technology for numerous customers. According to a study conducted by the management consulting firm McKinsey, the number of sold retrofits is expected to treble within the next five years and is anticipated to exceed the number of energy-saving lamps by the beginning of the next decade.

The flexible answer: Prevaled

The rapid pace of the LED age implies a great challenge for manufacturers of luminaires: the large leaps in performance made in the field of light diodes, as well as the concomitant technical changes have led to the current situation in which virtually every new generation of LED products calls for an entirely new luminaire design. A solution to this situation is offered by standardised LED-modules. LED-modules are units of numerous jointly connected LED. So as to ensure that these are universally applicable, 170 companies in the lighting branch have already joined forces in the so-called “Zhaga Consortium”. The consortium defines certain interface specifications for LED-modules as well as the corresponding electronics required (the control gear). Together these form what is called the “LED-Light-Engine”. In the course of this, mechanical, thermal, photometric and electrical interfaces are taken into account. With these defined parameters, the Zhaga-certified Light-Engines form the counterpart to the standardised lamps of the traditional world of light, such as light bulbs or fluorescent lamps. Specified basic data facilitates planning certainty for the manufacturers of luminaires, providing them with more flexibility, as they are now able to focus on their core business: the actual development of luminaires.
OSRAM will be presenting the first Zhaga-certified light engine at Light+Building 2012: the round LED-module Prevaled Core Z2 for spot- and downlights, which is approximately ten times more efficient than an incandescent lamp and provides performance levels of up to 108 lm/W. What is more, the rod-like LED-modules Prevaled Linear and Prevaled Linear Slim will also be introduced for use in offices, in addition to application in industrial buildings. Their LED-points of light are positioned so close together that the source of light radiated is particularly uniform and evenly distributed.
The safe answer: Siteco Streetlight10
The advantages of LED-modules over the firmly fitted individual LED are also made apparent by the Siteco Streetlight10 LED street lighting series. By separating the luminaire and the module, modules for different purposes of use, such as zebra crossings and surface illumination, can be integrated into the same luminaire. This lowers manufacturing and developing costs and thus has a positive impact on the marketability of the product. Should the prerequisites change in the course of time, the luminaires can easily be retrofitted to different and more high-performance LED-modules, thanks to their modular construction. Hence, for municipalities and operators of outside facilities, Streetlight10 offers a highly adaptable, cost-efficient and future-oriented approach on the road to LED-street lighting.
The professional answer: Encelium lighting management systems
The OSRAM Encelium lighting management system, which will be introduced in Europe at Light+Building, demonstrates impressively how up to 75% of energy in offices, industrial buildings and functional buildings such as hospitals or other public buildings can be saved. This is made possible by combining six different strategies, all of which are aimed at saving energy. Building operators are able to steer and monitor the system worldwide via the Internet, using unique software with 3D images. What is more, office workers are able to adjust light levels at their individual workplaces. When used in connection with the latest generation of OSRAM electronic control gears (in accordance with the DALI standard), the Encelium system is able to record and depict the energy consumption of the lighting in real-time. The software identifies optimization potential, in addition to allowing pin-pointed intervention. The result: more cost-efficient and flexible electricity tariffs can be used. Furthermore, by applying a specific interface, Encelium can also be incorporated into the building management system.
The OSRAM booth at Light+Building is located in Hall 2.0.

Author: nn at 4:27 pm | Comments Off
Category : General

IMG Lighting Launches World’s Brightest, Dual Warm and Cool Diode LED Desk Lamp


IMG Lighting has launched Beacon 600 Generation III, which is claimed to be the world’s brightest, dual warm & cool diode LED desk lamp.
The Beacon 600 Generation III is the latest upgrade to the highly successful Beacon 600 and Beacon 600 LE by IMG Lighting LED Desk Lamps.
The Beacon 600 Generation III employs the IMG Lighting High Modulus Chipset that drives an array of premium OSRAM50, 000 hour LEDs to produce 600 lumens with a mere 8.7 watts of power.
It achieves a 32.5% energy efficiency gain over previous generations. The Beacon 600’s very high lumen to watt ratio makes the current generation of Beacon 600 one of the worlds most energy efficient LED desk lamps available anywhere.
Beacon 600 employs clean, stress free LED lighting technology that eliminates the harsh whites of fluorescent and the yellow glare of incandescent bulbs.
The Beacon Desk Lamps is available in reading, computer lighting and office tasks.

Author: nn at 4:23 pm | Comments Off
Category : General

Prototype LEDs fabricated from GaN-based layers grown on 150-mm-diameter silicon substrates are similar in performance to standard production devices grown on sapphire.

Osram Opto Semiconductors has reported a set of R&D results from LEDs fabricated using gallium nitride (GaN)-based layers deposited on silicon. The R&D devices made using GaN-on-Si material have performance levels that are similar to production devices fabricated on sapphire.

GaN LEDs on 6-inch silicon

GaN LEDs on 6-inch silicon

Most GaN-based LEDs are grown on sapphire or silicon carbide substrates. While Osram Opto has already started moving its standard production of GaN-based LEDs to 6-inch (150-mm) diameter sapphire substrates, the real prize in moving to production on silicon wafers is the availability of larger, lower-cost substrates.

The new LED chips are already in the pilot stage, and will be tested under practical conditions, says Osram, adding that its first LEDs fabricated on silicon could hit the market in just two years.

“Our investments in years of research are paying off, because we have succeeded in optimizing the quality of the gallium-nitride layers on the silicon substrates to the point where efficiency and brightness have reached competitive market levels,” said Peter Stauss, project manager at Osram Opto Semiconductors. “Stress tests we’ve already conducted demonstrate the high quality and durability of the LEDs, two of our traditional hallmarks.”

The GaN-on-Si chips were fabricated using Osram’s thin-film UX:3 process, which involves transfer to a silicon carrier and removal of the original silicon substrate (see diagram).

Blue UX:3 chips in the standard Golden Dragon Plus package achieved an optical power of 634 mW at 3.15V, equivalent to 58 percent efficiency. These are very good values for 1-mm2 chips at 350 mA.

Thin-film fabrication of GaN-on-Si

Thin-film fabrication of GaN-on-Si

In combination with a conventional phosphor converter in a standard housing, prototype white LEDs produced 140 lm at 350 mA with an efficiency of 127 lm/W at 4500K.

“For these LEDs to become widely established in lighting, the components must get significantly cheaper while maintaining the same level of quality and performance,” said Stauss. “We are developing new methods along the entire technology chain for this purpose, from chip technology to production processes and housing technology.”

Mathematically speaking, it is already possible today to fabricate over 17,000 LED chips measuring 1-mm2on a 150-mm wafer. Larger silicon wafers could increase productivity even more; researchers have already demonstrated the first structures on 200-mm (approx. 8-inch) substrates.

The German Federal Ministry of Education and Research has funded some of Osram’s development work in the area of epitaxial growth of GaN-on-Si materials as part of its “GaNonSi” project network.

Author: nn at 5:21 pm | Comments Off
Category : Led

BYD eBUS-12 will be launched to Turkish market by BD Otomotiv 2011-12-15

BD Otomotiv, distributor of BYD cars and buses in Turkey, is participating to the biggest commercial
vehicles exhibition of Turkey, Comvex Istanbul 2011 with BYD’s electric bus eBUS-12. COMVEX fair, a meeting point for the professional visitors, international delegations, will be held between 24-27 November in ?stanbul.

With the increasing importance of energy efficiency, BD Otomotiv, aims to be the leader in Turkish automotive market with
its pure electric transportation solutions, will exhibit BYD eBUS-12 and its own light commercial product range covers both
van and combi type vehicles having GVW between 1.5t – 3.5t.

BD Otomotiv is expecting to have great interest especially on BYD eBUS-12, from Turkey’s metropolitan municipalities
and private transportation companies, who are already focusing on energy efficiency and environment friendly
transportation. With its “Fe” battery technology BYD eBUS-12 can travel up to 250 km in range per charge and offer an
advantage of significantly reduced pollution in large cities and also reduced operating costs.

Author: nn at 4:32 pm | Comments Off
Category : General

How long will the China LED industry recover from its current slump? December.14, 2011

2010 and 2011 were the debut years for China LED industry.  Not only the numbers of MOCVD system increased from ~50 in 2007 to over 700 in 2011(see Fig 1), but also the LED industrial revenue has increased from the CNY$50 billion in 2007 to CNY$1,730 billion in 2011 (See Table 1).

Figure 1. China MOCVD installed base projection. (source: GG LED and LEDInside)
Among all, the LED chip manufacturing and the application segments grow the most rapidly with the CAGR of 65% and 61% respectively. The phenomena are not coincident.

Table 1. The growth trend of the China LED industry. (source: Topology Research Institute?2011/09)

As we all know that most of the LED chips were imported to meet the domestic demands from 2008 Olympics to 2010 Shanghai Expos.  The domestic supply for the LED chips was lagging behind the demand even up till now(see Fig 2). The central government is fully aware that the LED is a strategic and critical opportunity for China to focus after failing to establish a strong foothold in both the semiconductor and the flat panel arenas.  Unlike the complexity of semiconductor or the long cycle time for the flat panel factory to establish, LED is very straight forward in terms of realizing the Return of Investment and perceiving the multiple benefits in the energy saving and the environment preservation.

Thus since 11th 5-year plan, the policy makers have steadily increased the funding to LED industry.  Toward the end of the 11th 5-year plan, several regional governments were giving out the subsidy to purchase the MOCVD.  The policy planted the seed of market dis-order later.

Figure 2. The LED chip demand and domestic capacity trend chart of China. (Source: combination of GG LED and LEDInside 2011/08)

How the booming started
Let’s go back and look at what happened in 2009.  The main reason for LED to become a hot selling ticket item was due to the LED TV created by Koreans.  The Koreans invented the Edge style to provide the backlight with LED (see Fig. 3).  They cut back on the number of LEDs needed for the backlight and they promoted the sleek thinner design to the early adopters of the new technology.  The result was an instant success.  LED TV quickly became a buzz word in the consumer electronic industry.  As Koreans could not produce enough HB LED themselves, they bought from Taiwan.  Pretty quickly, Taiwan started increasing epi manufacturing capacity in late 2009.  By the early 2010, China LED industry also benefited from the Shanghai Expo and other domestic lighting projects.   Koreans sucked up most of the MOCVD equipment in 2009, this caused the

Figure 3. The evolution of the LED TV backlight. (Source: LEDInside, 2010/07)

Taiwanese to catch up.  Due to the shortage in MOCVD, the Chinese epi manufacturers were afraid of being left behind.  Several mega projects were announced in Q1’10.  Incidentally, Koreas found out the LED TV did not attract the early majority of the consumers from NA and Europe.  The CCFL back-lighted TV is still 15% cheaper than the LED TV.  Samsung, LGI, and SOC almost simultaneously cancelled the MOCVD shipments in Q2’10 while the Chinese and Taiwanese customers were buying like crazy.  Nevertheless, the 2” sapphire price doubled from US$12 to US$25 in 1H’10.  Likewise, Mo source shortage induced the pricing hike during the same time.  The fanfare accelerated the investment into sapphire and Mo sources as some people saw the lucrative margin in the raw materials. 

How did it end
In Figure 4, it is not difficult to see that the ill-prepared new LED chip companies are increasing.  Majority of the new comers have very little experience in setting up the LED facility, let alone in producing HB LED.  Just like every gold rush or stock market run, when the typical Joe-six-pack wants to get into the LED market, it spells the end of the booming period.  By the early 2011, the number of the LED companies had mushroomed to the unsustainable level.  Unfortunately, this is also the time the world wide economics started to deteriorate.  The turmoil in US financial market, the slump in the housing/job market, plus the increasing European government debts were just the prelude of what was coming in 2011.  In fact, if we are smart enough, we should be able to predict the LED TV would never get to the 50% penetration rate in 2011.   China’s booming LED TV market can not offset the weak worldwide market demand.  To keep the LED TV market momentum, Samsung decided to cut the cost of LED BL module by reducing the quantity and raising the brightness spec of HB LED in Q1’11(see Fig. 2).  When this happened, 70% of HB LED will not be qualified for LED TV BL.  This created a huge inventory problem for everybody.  In 1H’11, Koreans started dumping the LED chips into the general lighting market, then Taiwanese following the suit.  Within two

Figure 4. The operation status of China LED companies. (Source: GG LED Research Institute, 08/2011)
months, the WW LED market became a red sea.   Coming back to China LED market, at this point, the inventory level from Q1’11 to Q3’11 has been increasing steadily.  According to DigitImes 11/21/12 news, Sanan has over RMB$1billion worth of LED inventory,  and Changelights has over RMB$100 million worth of Red/Yellow LED inventory.  Every LED chip manufacturer is suffering the similar problem.  These inventory will not get consumed at least until Q2’12.

In the meanwhile, the slowdown in LED manufacturing started its domino effect on the raw materials supply chain.  The 2” sapphire price peaking out at $35 in Q4’10 is now plummeting to ~US$9.  The excessive investment in sapphire capacity becomes a huge overhang in China LED industry.  Central government has issued warnings through different channels.  Only by July 2011 did the MOCVD subsidy start tapering off.  Companies in China were blind-sided by two things: the easy money from everywhere , and the huge untapped market in solid state lighting.  Now they are all gone. 

The sad reality is that China is having its own problem.  When the inflation is running high due to the unrealistic housing market and appreciated RMB, the central government had no choice but to tighten the monetary policy.  When money stopped to flow in Q2’11, the weak ones first felt the pinched.  A lot of lighting companies sought the loans through private institutes with >10% interest rates.  As for the LED epi manufacturers, they saw their products obsolete overnight as the results of the dumping from Koreans and Taiwanese.  The results are exit of epi manufacturing, such as GCL, and the run-away of lighting company executives in Wenzhou and Foshan.  

Hope is on the horizon?
Despite the announcement of phasing out of the incandescent light bulbs, the general lighting market will not be able to make up the slack created by LED TV BL demand.  At least, I do not expect this will happen in 2012.  New incentive program is rumored to come out in December to selectively subsidize the general lighting products.  The trick is that the general lighting products need to be certified first (just like Energy Star system in US), and the lighting companies need to be qualified by the government as the legitimate suppliers.   This will only keep a few larger companies stay floating.  For the typical household to adopt the LED light bulbs, the 50% subsidy is critical for the initial adopters.  I also doubt that this will take effect in 2012 unless the quality and the price of LED light bulb improved dramatically.  To put the timing of SSL activation in more prospective, I believe we also need to consider the ramping of China LED chip capacity.  My understanding is that nearly 50% of newly added MOCVD capacity has not been put into production.  In Figure 4, it shows the situation prior to 2011.  If China indeed imported over 400 more MOCVD systems in 2011, the untapped capacity is enormous.   Some makers  boast the world will need more than 6000 MOCVD systems to support the general lighting demand.  The estimation is not only flaw, but also deceiving.  It overlooked the fact that there will be innovations and improvements to increase the productivity.  Fortunately, most of the people will learn from the past mistakes.  Those who can emerge from the current slump will be the strong ones to survive in the long run.

Final Words
The traditional wisdom tells us that the only thing that does not change is the change itself.  Despite the current situation is very gloomy, the market will work its way out.  Having said that, a lot of epi capacity is not on line now, probably will not be on line in the next 6 months.  The market will sort out the weak ones, to re-baseline the supply side.  China economics along can not modulate the overall LED market.   The world wide economics should recover once the FUD (Fear, Uncertainty, Doubt ) about the European debts and US housing/job markets subside.  Then the LED demand will resume.  As soon as that happens, the raw material suppliers will be the first one to feel it.  The MOCVD suppliers will need to wait till the end of 2012.  This is because all the added capacity in the last two years need to be utilized first.  Once the bad ones phased out in this down turn, the LED industry will become healthier and stronger to embrace the general lighting up turn in 2013. (Justin K. Wang)

Author: nn at 3:04 pm | Comments Off
Category : General